Breast Cancer is a disease in which the breast cells multiply uncontrollably. Breast cancer comes in a variety of forms. Depending on the type of cells in the breast, we find out the type of breast cancer. Breast cancer may affect both men and women. A bulge or lump in the breast, bloody flow from the nipple, and changes in the form or texture of both the nipple and breast are all symptoms of breast cancer. It can begin from any part of the breast. A breast comprises three major components: lobules, connective tissue, and ducts. The stage of malignancy determines its therapy.
What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
Though a lump is the most prevalent sign of breast cancer, there are numerous other changes that a woman should be aware of:
- Unambiguous lump
- The discharge of the nipple
- Nipples inverted
- Breast skin dimpling
- Rashes at the nipple, which can look similar to eczema
Stage 2 Breast Cancer
Stage 2 breast cancer implies the tumor is developing but is still confined within the breast or has only spread to adjacent lymph nodes. Larger tumors or malignancies spread further into adjacent tissue are classified as stage 2 cancer. The tumor size defines the distinction between Stage 2A and Stage 2B and whether breast cancer has progressed to the lymph nodes. Chemotherapy for stage 2 breast cancer is generally administered first, followed by radiation and surgical treatment.
One of the following sequences applies to stage IIA (2A) breast cancer.
- No actual tumor is connected with the malignant cells, or cancer cells are detected in fewer than four axillary lymph nodes.
- The tumor is smaller than 2 cm in diameter and has cancer cells in no more than four axillary lymph nodes.
- The tumor is 2 to 5 cm in size and has not migrated to the lymph nodes.
One of the following descriptions applies to stage IIB (2B) breast cancer.
- The tumor is between 2 and 5 cm in diameter and has migrated to no more than four axillary lymph nodes
- The tumor is more than five cm in diameter but has not migrated to just about any axillary lymph nodes.
Treatment for stage 2 B breast canceror 2 A breast cancer depends on the tumor's placement or size. It can be Chemotherapy, Hormone therapy, treatment for stage 2 lobular breast cancer using targeted drug treatment, or a bone-strengthening treatment. Treatment For Stage 2 Breast Cancer
Treatment for Stage 2 breast canceris typically treated with surgery (a lumpectomy or mastectomy) followed by radiation therapy. Doctors will also examine the surrounding lymph nodes for cancer during the surgery. The tumor's HR and HER2 status will determine some of your therapy options. Your doctor will also consider whatever other health issues you may have, your age, and your menopausal state.
Treatment for stage 2 triple-negative breast cancersince triple-negative breast cancer lacks HR and HER2 receptors, therapeutic choices are limited. Chemo, however, reacts favorably to treatment. Most patients' treatment for stage 2 grade 3 breast cancer plans include medicine, such as chemotherapy for stage 2 breast cancer, hormone therapy, breast cancer targeted therapy, or a combination of the three.
Surgical options may include: depending on the size and location of the tumor, breast preservation surgery (lumpectomy) and, with or without reconstruction, modified radical mastectomy. The surgeon will also do a sentinel lymph node biopsy to determine whether cancer has spread during these operations.
Radiation therapy is usually administered after surgery, particularly if you have a lumpectomy. Radiation is used to reduce the likelihood of recurrence. Radiation treatment works by causing DNA damage in cancer cells.
This could be used to decrease tumors before surgery or to reduce the likelihood of recurrence following surgery. Chemotherapy is the standard treatment for stage 2 breast cancer and is commonly administered in 1-week to 2-week rounds. One downside of chemotherapy, the medications will not be able to distinguish between malignant and healthy cells. As a result, some healthy cells may be temporarily harmed in addition to malignant cells.
Understanding If You Are Hr-Positive Or Her2-Negative Breast Cancer
When you get a biopsy for a breast tumor, the pathology report informs you much more than whether or not the tumor is malignant. It gives vital information on the composition of your tumor. This is significant because some forms of breast cancer are much more dangerous than others, which means they develop and spread more quickly. Some kinds have targeted therapies available, but not all. Each form of breast cancer necessitates a unique treatment strategy.
Your HR status and HER2 status will be two crucial factors in the report.
HR stands for hormone receptor. Breast cancers are examined for estrogen receptors as well as progesterone receptors. On your pathology report, each status is listed separately. Approximately 80% of breast cancers are ER-positive. Approximately 65 per cent of them are also PR-positive. You can test positive for either ER or PR or both. In any case, hormones are fueling your breast cancer. It also implies that your therapy may include hormone-related drugs.
Treatments for HR-positive breast cancer
- Aromatase inhibitors
- Selective estrogen-receptor response modulators (SERMs)
- Estrogen-receptor down-regulators (ERDs), some of which are used to treat advanced HR-positive breast cancer
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agents (LHRH)
- Ovaries are removed (oophorectomy)
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. HER2 is a gene that codes for HER2 proteins, also known as receptors. When the HER2 gene fails to operate correctly, it creates excessive copies, resulting in HER2 protein overexpression. This results in unregulated breast cell division and tumor growth.
Treatment for HER2-negative breast cancer
- Palbociclib, ribociclib, or abemaciclib is used along with aromatase inhibitors
- Everolimus is used in conjunction with exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor.
- In cancer cells, alpelisib is used to inhibit a version of the PI3K protein.
- Fulvestrant inhibits cancer cell development by targeting a receptor known as the estrogen receptor.
- Both goserelin and leuprolide inhibit oestrogen production.
- Tamoxifen is a SERM (selective oestrogen-receptor response modulator) that can block oestrogen's actions in breast tissue.
- Toremifene is another SERM that is sometimes utilized in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.
Apollo Cancer Centres Approach to Cancer Treatment
Apollo Cancer Centres have ushered in international standards in cancer care wherein the focus is on early diagnosis of the ailment and adoption of structured approach for the treatment. Along with advanced diagnostics, this also involves application of molecular pathology, and organ specific tumor board approach to arrive at a consensus among clinicians on what can be the best course of treatment for the patient under the available modalities at Apollo Cancer Centres viz. Surgical Oncology, Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology & Nuclear Medicine. The Tumor Board consists of a panel of clinicians with significant experience in Medical, Surgical and Radiation oncology, who are supported by Onco-Radiologist & Histo-Pathologist to win over cancer.
At Apollo Cancer Centres, we aim to bring together the best minds in Oncology to discuss and deliberate the emerging trends in cancer management and their impact on clinical practice. Each of our patient care teams combine the skills and experience of several healthcare professionals, who specializes in diagnosing and treating a particular type of cancer associated with an organ. This has led to the development of ‘Clinical Management Teams’ (CMT). Our team members meet regularly to discuss diagnostics and treatment related support for patients, meaning that each patient benefits from a wide range of expertise. Having clinicians of many different disciplines involved in your care, ensures that you will receive the best possible treatment for your specific needs.
Do connect with the experts at Apollo Cancer Centre for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Request an appointment at Apollo Cancer Centres online or by calling 1800-203-1066.